The General Self-Efficacy Scale is a 10-item psychometric scale that is designed to assess optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life. The scale has been originally developed in German by Matthias Jerusalem and Ralf Schwarzer in 1981. (

scoring_gses(data, items = 1:10, keep = TRUE, nvalid = 7, digits = NULL)



a data.frame containing the GSES items orderd from 1 to 10


A character vector with the GSES item names ordered from 1 to 10, or a numeric vector indicating the column numbers of the GSES items in data.


Logical, whether to keep the single items and whether to return variables containing the number of non-missing items on each scale for each respondent. The default is TRUE.


A numeric value indicating the number of non-missing items required for score calculations. The default is 7.


Integer of length one: value to round to. No rounding by default.


The function returns 2 variables:

  • nvalid.gses: Number of valid values (MAX=10)

  • score.gses: GSES Score


  • Number of items: 10

  • Item range: 1 to 4

  • Reverse items: none

  • Score range: 10 to 40

  • Cut-off-values: none

  • Minimal clinically important difference: none

  • Treatment of missing values: "Our rule of thumb is to calculate a score as long as no more than three items on the ten-item scale are missing." (FAQ Document)


Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (Hrsg.) (1999). Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schuelermerkmalen. Dokumentation der psychometrischen Verfahren im Rahmen der Wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des Modellversuchs Selbstwirksame Schulen. Berlin: FU Berlin

Skala zur Allgemeinen Selbstwirksamkeitserwartung (SWE) (



if (FALSE) { library(dplyr) items.gses <- paste0("GSES_", seq(1, 10, 1)) scoring_gses(mydata, items = items.gses) }